Thursday, February 24, 2011

                     Ruby and Oswald: Connections

                        John Delane Williams

  Whether Jack Ruby and Lee Harvey Oswald knew each other has been hotly contested; it has been denied by Warren Commission supporters. [1,2] Such a relationship has been alledged/confirmed by dissenters, though proof of such a relationship is not necessary to otherwise show the Warren Commission was in error (e.g., Kantor [3]). The existence of such a relationship is near fatal to the Warren Commission conclusions. The present purpose is to review instances of a Ruby-Oswald relationship that have been made public.
                      Oswald and the Carousel Club

  In conversations with Gary Shaw [4], Beverly Oliver (who also authored Nightmare in Dallas [5]) told of Oswald entering Ruby's Carousel Club on several occasions. She only started talking about the Oswald-Ruby connection in the 1970's; earlier, she feared for her life; Jada, a stripper at the Carousel Club mentioned the Oswald-Ruby connection on the night of November 22, 1963 at the Carousel Club, and has not been seen since; Oliver assumes she was killed for her looseness of tongue. Kathy Kay (variously, Kathy Clayborne [6] or Kay Coleman [7]), a stripper at the Carousel, danced with Oswald a few nights before the assassination at the club. [8] Sharri Angel (Bobbie Louise Meserole) confirmed Kathy Kay's account, adding that Ruby told Kay to do the bump and grind while dancing with Oswald to embarrass him. [9] William D. Crowe, a nightclub hypnotist who performed under the name Billy DeMar, remarked, after the assassination, that Oswald appeared to be a patron who been at Crowe's preformance the previous week at the Carousel. Crowe stated that "Bill Willis, the drummer in the band at the club, said he seemed to remember Lee Harvey Oswald sitting in the front row on Thursday night right in the corner of the stage and the runway". [10, p. 110] If this sighting referred to November 21, it could be disputed on the grounds that Oswald returned to the Paine's residence in Irving with Wesley Fraizer [11] and therefore could not have been at the Carousel Club.
   Robert Litchfield II testified that he thought he saw Oswald at the Carousel Club in late October or early November, 1963. He was told that positively incorrectly identifying Oswald would lead to a federal charge. Litchfield decided he wasn't that sure. [12] 
   An attorney, Carroll Jarnagin, wrote a letter to J. Edgar Hoover (head of the FBI) two weeks after the assassination, "On Oct. 4, 1963 I was in the Carousel Club in Dallas, Texas, and while I was there I  heard Jack Ruby talking to a man using the name H. L. Lee. These men were talking about plans to kill the Governor of Texas. This information was passed on to the Texas Department on Public Safety on Oct. 5, 1963 by telephone. On Sunday, November 24, 1963, I definitely realized that the picture in the Nov. 23, 1963 Dallas Times Herald of Lee Harvey Oswald was a picture of the man using the name of H. L. Lee whose conversations with Jack Ruby I had overheard"... [13, p. 254] Jarnagin then recounts six pages of this meeting, including a reconstruction of much of the Ruby-Oswald conversation. [14] In that Jarnagin had been accompanied by an exotic dancer, Robin Hood (Shirley Ann Marie Mauldin), the FBI sought to interview her. Mauldin was interviewed at the Douglas County Jail in Omaha, Nebraska. Mauldin said that were she aware of such threats being made,..."she would have not hesitated to report this information"...[15, p. 259]. Given her circumstances (in jail, being interviewed by the FBI) this seems an astute response to make, whether or not she overheard the conversation.
  Wally Weston, the master of ceremonies at the Carousel Club until five days before the assassination (and also the husband of Ruby stripper Sharri Angel) recalled hitting Oswald at the Carousel for saying he thought Weston was a communist. Weston mentioned this incident to Ruby when Ruby was in jail; [16] Ruby had previously denied knowing Oswald. [17] Ruby just looked at Weston without saying anything. [18] Weston also related an incident on his last night at the Carousel Club. Ruby introduced him, but not by name, to 'some friends from Chicago'. Weston left the club and tried to get back in. He was told he couldn't come in then. [19] Inside, according to one of the attendees, Myron Thomas Billet (aka Paul Bucilli), were Ruby, Oswald, Sam Giancana, John Roselli, an FBI man and Billet. The discussion was about a hit on JFK. Giancana and Billet left, not wishing to take part. [20] Ester Ann Mash, a waitress and champagne hostess at the Carousel Club, served drinks at the meeting; at the time, she recognized only Ruby; she recognized Oswald from his pictures after his arrest. [21]  
                   The Silence of the Damsels

  A group of people most likely to know of a Ruby-Oswald connection would seem to be the hostesses, waitresses and dancers at the Carousel Club. Perhaps the disappearance of Jada after talking about Oswald and Ruby together was sufficient to throw fear into the others. Perhaps also, several were interviewed for the Warren Commission but their information could not be sufficiently rebutted; under such circumstances, the Commission might prefer   that it not become part of the public record. One exotic dancer from the Carousel Club who was interviewed by the Warren Commission was Little Lynn (Karen Bennett Carlin). She alternately testified she had seen Oswald at the club, then denied it, then testified that there was a connection between the two men. [22, 23]                         

                  The General Walker Connection

   According to John Henshaw, an investigative reporter for Drew Pearson, Ruby and Oswald were being investigated for the assassination attempt on General Edwin Walker's life in March, 1963. Apparently, the Justice Department didn't want Oswald or Ruby arrested for matters of state. If Henshaw was right, then there existed written communications to the FBI (from the CIA) and the Dallas Police (from the Justice Department, on behalf of the CIA) regarding not arresting either of the men. [24] General Walker called a right-wing German paper on November 23, 1963. About three days later the paper went to press with a story that Oswald and Ruby were the attackers on Walker. [25]
   Madeline Brown, Lyndon Johnson's mistress/lover, [26] was sitting in the Carousel Club talking with her friends in the Spring of 1963, discussing the attempted shooting of General Walker. Someone asked 'Who do you think did it?' Jack Ruby blurted out the name Lee Oswald. Brown took note of the name she had never heard before; her shock was when she heard Oswald had been picked up by the police at the time of the JFK assassination. [27]

                        New Orleans

   At least two different sources place Oswald and Ruby together in New Orleans. Ron Lewis, [28] who claimed to be a friend of Oswald's, witnessed an arms movement involving Ruby, Oswald, Ferrie and Gerald Patrick Hemming, just before the Clinton, LA voter drive. A plan was concocted to sell the arms to Congress Of Racial Equality (CORE) members and then have the CORE members arrested by the FBI. The plan was not put into operation, due to too much racial tension at the time. Lewis also relates conversations with Oswald where Oswald talked to him about his relationship with Ruby. Oswald said that he met frequently with Ruby during the first part of October, 1963, beginning on the 5th. Rose [29] tends to doubt Lewis's story.
   Another person thought she saw Ruby visit Oswald at Oswald's apartment in New Orleans. The woman was afraid that Garrison would force her to testify, and she feared for her life if she did. [30]

                             Key West

   As Gaeton Fonzi conducted his investigations with the House Select Committee on Assassinations, he was given a report of a Ruby-Oswald sighting in Key West. He interviewed George Faraldo, who had done reconnaisance photography in flights over Cuba for the CIA. In the summer of 1963 he saw Oswald and Ruby at Key West International Airport as they waited with a group of young people for an Aerovia Q Airline plane to go to Cuba to cut sugar cane; the group was part of the "Fair Play for Cuba Committee." Since the airline no longer had regular flights, the group was in the small airport for much of the day. Oswald mingled with the youth much of the time. Ruby stayed in a corner. As Faraldo tried to find documentation of the flight, he'd discovered files were either routinely destroyed, or else destroyed in a flood. Faraldo had also filmed the group in the airport and sent the undeveloped film to Ralph Renick at WTVJ-TV, where Feraldo did freelancing. Renick tried to find the film about the time of the Garrison investigation, with no avail. [31] Interestingly, Fonzi stated that, "In the files of the FBI there are hundreds of reports of individuals who claimed they saw Lee Harvey Oswald and Jack Ruby together before the president's murder." [32, p. 60] While many were seen as baseless, others seemed to have a basis and were from legitimate sources. [33] 

                    The Dallas Police Station

The early linchpin of the likelihood of an Oswald-Ruby connection was the midnight Friday press conference when District Attorney Henry N. Wade said that Oswald belonged to the "Free Cuba Committee", he was immediately corrected by Ruby, who said "Fair Play for Cuba Committee". [34] In that Oswald was the only member in his New Orleans chapter, it is highly unlikely that Ruby would have known this, unless he was very familiar with Oswald's background. Blakely and Billings [35] surmised that Ruby might have read it in a paper, but offer no evidence that that information was available to Ruby or any other citizen of Dallas that quickly after the assassination. Also, at the time of Oswald's being shot on November 24, "Witnesses to the shooting wondered if there wasn't a gleam of recognition in Oswald's eye when Ruby stepped out from the newsmen." [36, p. 133]

                Target Practice at Lake Worth

   A compelling story has been told by Ray "Tex" Brown. [37] Brown was not yet nineteen at the time of the assassination. He was a cowboy and a sometimes bounty hunter, working with his mentor, John Marshall. Marshall was asked to help Jack Ruby and one other person to learn to shoot guns better. Marshall declined, handing the job to Brown. The other person turned out to be Lee Harvey Oswald. Though the book is not entirely definite, meetings for target practice along the shores of Lake Worth (not at a target range) involving both Oswald and Ruby were:         
     October 9, Wednesday, 12:00-2:30 PM;
     October 10, Thursday, 11-1:30 PM;
     October 11, Friday, 11-1:30 PM;
     October 15, Tuesday, 4-5:30 PM;
     October 28, Wednesday, 5:30-6 PM;
     November 6, Wednesday, 5:30-6 PM;
     November 17, Sunday, late afternoon.
  Brown met Oswald for the first time at the Clover Club Cafe at noon on October 9. After 30-45 minutes, they proceeded to Lake Worth. The next three meetings began at the Rodeo Cafe.  Also, Brown met with Ruby, but not Oswald, on October 24 and November 13. While Ruby showed some promise, Oswald did not; on one occasion, Oswald nearly shot himself in the foot trying to do a fast draw. While at the Rodeo Cafe, a comely girl ingratiated herself to Brown so that he might introduce her to Ruby; once Candy made headway as an exotic dancer, her relationship with Brown ended. On November 20th, Brown was offered a million dollars for 'one day's work' by Ruby, which Brown declined. After their November 13th outing, Ruby excitedly showed Brown a "twist board" [38] that Ruby was trying to market; in the latter part of September, 1963, Richard Adams, President of the Pastelite Engineering Company (and maker of the boards) was contacted by Ruby to sell the boards. Though no arrangement had been made, Ruby was still actively pursuing this venture up to the assassination. [39] Ruby may have seen selling these boards as a way to address his chronic money problems.
   Brown agonized about whether to give the Warren Commission his information about the assassination; there was the danger of being killed; John Marshall, his mentor, had been shot in the back five times and died. Brown also promised Lyndon Johnson to keep his mouth shut. He decided to call investigators from the Warren Commission. Without telling them his name, he said that he had very important information about Oswald and Ruby. Brown was told, "We appreciate your call very much, sir, but the investigation is nearly concluded, and we have the information we need." [40, p. 224]
                      Other Alleged Sightings

   Bill Chesher was supposed to have information linking Oswald and Ruby; Chesher died of a sudden heart attack in March 1964. [41]
When shown a newspaper article shortly after the assassination wherein Ruby claimed he didn't know Oswald, Rose Cherami, who had been an employee at the Carousel, laughed and said, "They were bedmates!" [42, p. 57] Miss Cherami was killed by a hit and run driver on October 4, 1965 in Big Sandy, Texas. [43] Clyde Johnson asserted a relationship among Ruby, Oswald, Ferrie and Clay Shaw (presumably a homosexual relationship); Johnson was beaten the day before his scheduled appearance at the Shaw trial and murdered with a shotgun shortly thereafter. [44]
  A possible Ruby-Oswald connection was contained in the Warren Report. A boarder at the same house as Oswald (owned by Earlene Roberts) was John Carter, who was friends with Wanda Killiam, who had known Ruby since 1947. [45, p. 363] Carter worked with Hank Killiam, Wanda's husband, as a house painter. All three were possible sources of showing a Ruby-Oswald connection. Killiam was found dead with his throat cut and his body thrown through a department store window in Pensacola, FL on March 17, 1964. [46] Another possibility is that Ruby knew or was aware of Oswald through Roscoe and Geneva White. Roscoe was a Dallas police officer and an acquaintance of Ruby who had visited in Ruby's office, where Geneva (a B girl at the Carousel Club) overheard plans regarding the assassination. [47] Roscoe and Geneva White and Oswald went to a rifle range, where Oswald was reported to be a poor shot. [48] Former Texas Attorney General Jim Mattox was told by his mother that she saw Ruby and Oswald have dinner together at the restaurant where she was a waitress. [49]
   Dallas electronics salesman Robert K. Patterson sold equipment to Ruby and a person who appeared to be Oswald on November 1, 1963. The Warren Commission concluded that the person with Ruby was Larry Crafard, an employee of the Carousel Club. [50]
   Four Dallas deputies, Billy Preston, Robie Love, Mike Calahan and Ben Cash (the latter three are referred to as Constables) examined a boxful of handwritten notes that linked Ruby and Oswald. The box and contents were handed over to District Attorney Henry Wade in late 1963 or early 1964. Wade claimed he couldn't remember receiving the papers. Among the papers were a photocopy of a Daily Worker press card issued to Ruby, a motel receipt from a motel near New Orleans dated several weeks prior to the assassination with both Ruby's and Oswald's name on it, and a handwritten note about a plan to assassinate Kennedy in Wisconsin. Several other papers were in the box as well. [51]
   A stripper at the Midnight Lounge in Dallas, Pixie Lynn (Helen Smith) reportedly stated to Travis Binkendorfer, a bartender there, that Ruby and Oswald were present at a recent party in Dallas. When interviewed at her lawyer's office by the Secret Service, she denied all details, including having worked on November 22. The interview was at the request of the Secret Service who asked for an affidavit with her denial. This request upset her considerably and she requested that the affidavit, typed by a Secret Service stenographer, be done at her lawyer's office. "This case remains open for discussion with the United States Attorney as to prosecution of Birkendorfer, interview with Birkendorfer if warranted." [52, p. 185] It is hard not to suspect the heavy hand of the government to try to scuttle all allegations of a Ruby-Oswald connection.
   While it might be argued that some of the sightings of Ruby and Oswald were either mistaken identities or fanciful products of imaginative minds, the heavy hand of the government can be seen in intimidating witnesses [53]. It appears that the government took the point of view that witnesses that gave the "wrong" testimony were treated as hostile witnesses, and sometimes threatened with prosecution. While photographs of the two together haven't yet been made public (if any were taken), nevertheless, it is highly unlikely the two men were strangers at their encounter in the basement of the Dallas Police Building.
1. Posner, G. (1993). Case Closed. New York: Random House.
2. Blakely, G.R. & Billings, R.N. (1981).The Plot to Kill the
   President. New York: Times Book.
3. Kantor, (1978). The Ruby Cover-up. New York: Kensington Pub.
4. Shaw, J.G. with Harris, L. (1976, 1992). Cover-up. Austin, TX:     Collector's Editions.
5. Oliver, B. with Buchanan, C. (1994). Nightmare in Dallas.          Lancaster, PA: Starburst Publishers.
6. 26H 262-263.
7. Rose, J.D. (1987). You Don't Know Me but You Will: The World of     Jack Ruby. The Third Decade. 4#2, 1-28.
8. Dallas Times Herald, 5-22-75, as cited in Shaw, J.G. with          Harris, L.(1976, 1992). Cover-up. Austin, TX: Collector's          Editions.
9. Marrs, J. (1989). Crossfire: The Plot that Killed Kennedy. New     York: Carroll & Graf.
10. 14H 110.
11. Newman, A.H. (1970). The Assassination of John F. Kennedy: The      Reasons Why. New York: Potter.
12. 14H 107-108.
13. 26H 254-261.
14. Ibid.
15. Ibid.
16. Marrs, J. (1989). Crossfire: The Plot that Killed Kennedy. New      York: Carroll & Graf.
17. The Warren Commission Report. (1964). New York: Barnes & Noble      Books.
18. Marrs, J. (1989). Crossfire: The Plot that Killed Kennedy. New      York: Carroll & Graf.
19. Ibid.
20. Ibid.
21. Ibid.
22. 12H 219.
23. 15H 658-659.
24. Piper, M.C. (1995). Final Judgment: The Missing Link in the JFK      Assassination Conspiracy . Washington: The Wolfe Press.        25. Meagher, S. (1967). Accessories After the Fact: The Warren         Commision, the Authorities and the Report. New York: Vintage.
26. Brown, M.D. (1997). Texas in the Morning: The Love Story of         Madeline Brown and President Lyndon Baines Johnson. Baltimore,      MD: Conservatory Press.
27. Marrs, J. (1989). Crossfire: The Plot that Killed Kennedy. New      York; Carroll & Graf.
28. Lewis, R. (1993). Flashback. Roseburg, OR: Lewcom Productions.
29. Rose, J.D. (1997). Letters to the Editor: Rose Responds. The       Fourth Decade. 4#6, 15.
30. Piper, M.C. (1995). Final Judgment: The Missing Link in the JFK      Assassination Conspiracy . Washington: The Wolfe Press.        31. Fonzi, G. (1993). The Last Investigation. New York: Thunder        Mouth Press.
32. Ibid.
33. Ibid.
34. NBC newsreel footage, November 23, 1963. New York: NBC News        Archives.
35. Blakely, G.R. & Billings, R.N. (1981). The Plot to Kill the        President. New York: Times Book.
36. Curry, J. (1969). JFK Assassination File. Dallas, TX: self.
37. Brown, R. with Lassiter, D. (1996). Broken Silence: The Truth      about Lee Harvey Oswald, LBJ, and the Assassination of JFK. New      York: Pinnacle Press.
38. 26H 180.
39. 26H 458.
40. Brown, R. with Lassiter, D. (1996). Broken Silence: The Truth      about Lee Harvey Oswald, LBJ, and the Assassination of JFK. New      York: Pinnacle Press.
41. Roberts, C. & Armstrong, J. (1995). JFK: The Dead Witnesses.       Tulsa, OK: Consolidated Press.
42. Shaw, J.G. with Harris, L. (1976,1992). Cover-up. Austin, TX:      Collector's Editions.
43. Ibid.
44. Penn Jones, cited in Groden, R.J. & Livingston, H.E. (1989).
    High Treason. New York: The Conservatory Press.
45. The Warren Commission Report. (1964). New York: Barnes & Noble.
46. Roberts, C. & Armstrong, J. (1995). JFK: The Dead Witnesses.       Tulsa, OK: Consolidated Press.
47. Livingston, H.E. (1992). High Treason 2: The Great Cover-up:       The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. New York:          Carroll & Graf.
48. Ibid.
49. Ibid.
50. Marrs, J. (1989). Crossfire: The Plot that Killed Kennedy. New      York; Carroll & Graf.
51. Ibid.
52. 26H 184-185.
53. Meagher, S. (1967). Accessories After the Fact: The Warren         Commision, the Authorities and the Report. New York: Vintage.

Presented to the Twin Cities (MN) JFK Research Group, April, 2004.

Wednesday, February 23, 2011

                     TRIANGLE OF FIRE - A REVIEW

                         John Delane Williams

     Triangle of Fire by Bob Goodman [1] by any accounts is a flawed book. The numerous running together of words and sentences demonstrates the lack of an editor for this self-published book. The organization (or lack thereof) is highly unusual. The 225 page manuscript has 23 chapters. The first chapter is unnamed, and runs almost half the book. Goodman claims to be an eyewitness and hints that there is proof of this assertion, but the evidence is not forthcoming. That is of little matter, since he makes no claim as an eyewitness that hasn't already been given. However, this book does contain a few nuggets, and they are worthy of our attention.

     Goodman spent much of his life away from Dallas and removed from the concerns of November, 1963. He was working with commercial computer applications in El Paso. Getting the bugs out of an application was seemingly enough to drive him back to Dallas. He had always felt a personal danger in Dealey Plaza. As if to tempt fate, he attended the COPA convention in 1991. He gained the resolve to work in Dealey Plaza for a year to come to terms with the Kennedy assassination, and to make good on a promise he made to a woman he met while working at the Rose Hill Cemetery near Dallas.  There, he met Marguerite Oswald. He said that if he could, he would try to help the truth come out someday.

     Goodman's research technique was certainly unique; he would casually talk to visitors as he hawked an assassination newspaper with 60 different theories of the assassination. If someone told him there was a great book to read, he'd ask that they tell him  about the book rather than read it himself. Being at the plaza every day, he eventually met a variety of people as they educated him about the assassination. One person showed him the storm drain behind the fence and its probable significance. He met Ed Hoffman [2] and became acquainted with his experience in Dealey Plaza. He also met Dr. Charles Crenshaw [3], one of physicians who treated President Kennedy at Parkland Hospital. Crenshaw maintained that Kennedy was shot from the front.

     Goodman discovered the crisscross directory for Dallas 1963. He had a particular interest in the Dal-Tex building and its occupants. He found the Dallas Uranium Company, whose offices were strategically located on the third floor and had a clear view for a shooter intent on assassinating the president. Goodman was told the company was owned by H.L. Hunt, whom Goodman suspects being involved with the JFK assassination. Evidence emerged that two people had indicated they entered the Dal-Tex building and went to the third floor in search of a phone. One of these persons, Eugene Hale Brading (a.k.a. as Jim Braden) has been identified as a suspicious character (see Shaw & Harris [4]). Goodman chooses to include four photographs of this person, who is made to sound suspicious and is never named (alas, few of the people Goodman talked to are ever named) but the impression is left that he just might be the person reported to be dark complexioned in a dark plaid jacket with horned rimmed glasses who was taken into custody shortly after the assassination.  Goodman contacted a person who was suspected to be this individual, who told Goodman that he was under legal counsel not to answer questions. The person photographed was Larry Florer. [5]; also see Trask [6]. The only mystery was one Goodman tried to create.

   Goodman moved into an apartment at 1026 N. Beckley, the last apartment of Lee Harvey Oswald. This seemed to increase Goodman's paranoia regarding his own safety rather than lend significantly to his investigation. This, unfortunately, seemed to be a pattern. Goodman ran across several good leads, but they were not followed far enough.
                     The Minutemen

     Goodman's theory is that the assassination was planned and paid for by Texas Oil interests who were also right wingers who were motivated both by concerns of keeping the status quo in terms of race relations and a continued inflow of money, unabated by the possible loss of billions of dollars due to the Kennedy idea of reducing or eliminating the oil depletion allowance. The assassination itself was supposedly done by the Minutemen. An FBI raid of an armed camp in Lake Pontchartrain on July 31, 1963 was said to have been a raid on anti-Castro Cubans and Minutemen. In this regard, there is one photograph of Oswald that is unexplained as to its contents. The fairly well known clinched- fist photograph appears to show Oswald wearing an ornate ring on his ring finger. (p. 191); also see Hurt[7], and Groden [8]. Recall that Oswald left his wedding ring at home in a teacup. The symbolic meaning of this was that Oswald knew that his life was drastically going to change and that his marriage was not likely to resume. In most pictures of Oswald taken at the Dallas police station, his ring finger is empty. Where did this ring come from? Does it have any special meaning? Why is the ring not on any inventories of Oswald's belongings? Where did the ring go? A woman from Louisiana told Goodman that the ring was a Minuteman ring, and that Oswald was attempting to tell the world who killed Kennedy. The woman claimed to have the ring in her possession. It was not clear if it was Oswald's ring or one like it.

                        Triangle of Fire
     There were said to be four shooters (following the information from Raymond Broshears, a roommate of David Ferrie, 1965-66:
              1. The storm sewer opening;
              2. The grassy knoll, behind the stockade;
              3. the Dal-Tex building; and
              4. the Texas School Book Depository.
Actually, Broshears mentions the storm sewer opening, the grassy knoll. He indicated that Oswald probably shot from the sixth floor, as a divisionary tactic. Broashears does not specifically cite the Dal-Tex Building as a shooter’s location. Rather, he said that Ferrie told him there were shooters at four locations, “ of them fired from the sewer opening along the parade route, another from the grassy knoll, and someone from behind.[9] If there were four shooters, then, strictly speaking, this should be called "a quadrangulation of fire".

Groden’s Reference to the Dal-Tex Building as a Shooter’s Location

Robert Groden posited that three shots were likely to have emanated from the Dal-Tex Building. Groden delineates between 8-10 shots that day in Dealey Plaza. [10] The first shot, taken at Zapruder 150-152 (Z150-Z152) was said to have been made from the Dal-Tex Building. The first shot missed the car, but both the President and Governor Connally reacted to it. [11] The fourth shot was thought to have been from either the “Oswald window” or the Dal-Tex Building, around Z224, but probably from the Dal-Tex Building, according to Groden. This shot apparently hit President Kennedy in the back; some have posited it as the “magic bullet.” [12] Two additional shot were posited to have emanated from the Dal-Tex Building. One of these shots was said to have caused the injury to James Tague. [13]
             The Owner of the Dal-Tex Building

     The owner of record of the Dal-Tex Building at the time of the assassination was said to be Morris Jaffe. Morris Jaffe was indeed a very interesting fellow who bears further investigation. Jaffe succeeded Billie Sol Estes in Estes’ empire, buying it for a song. He also was the person who delivered money to Lyndon Johnson to insure Johnson’s being on the 1960 ticket with John Kennedy. Jaffe also started Costco, Inc. [14]

     It may be that Goodman will turn out to be right in several of his assertions. If his right, it will be due more to luck and intuition than to careful research.


1. Goodman, B. (1993).Triangle of Fire. San Jose CA: Laquerian       Publishing Company.
2. Hoffman, E. & Friedrich, R, (1996).Eye Witness. Grand Prairie     TX: JFK Lancer Productions and Publications.
3. Crenshaw, C,A. with Hansen, J. (1992).JFK: Conspiracy of         Silence. New York: Signet.
4. Shaw,J.G. & Harris, L. (1992). Cover-Up: The Governmental         Conspiracy to Conceal the Facts about the Public Execution of     John Kennedy. Austin, TX: Thomas Publications.
5. Warren Commission Testimony and Exhibits. (1964). XIX, p.476.
6. Traske, R.B. (1994). Pictures of the Pain: Photography and the    Assassination of President Kennedy. Danvers MA:Yeoman Press 
7. Hurt, H. (1985). Reasonable Doubt: An Investigation into the      Assassination of John F. Kennedy. New York: Holt, Rinehart &      Winston, follows p. 138.
8. Groden, R.J. (1993). The Killing of a President: The Complete     Photographic Record of the JFK Assassination, the Conspiracy,     and the Cover-Up. New York: Penguin Books, p. 168.
9. Russell, D. (1992). The Man Who Knew too Much. New York:           Carroll & Graf. p. 165.
10. Groden (1993) p. 40.
11. ibid., p. 20.
12. ibid., p. 28.
13. ibid., p. 40.
14. Williams, J.D. (2003). Why is Morris Jaffe Interesting? Dealey Plaza Echo, 7, 2, 30-39.

Manuscript first written in 1998; revised in 2011.